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Who was the first to explain the structure of the eye?

Who is the first to explain the structure of the eye? God Almighty created the blessing of sight, which helps us to see and distinguish things around us, and the eye consists of several different parts, connected with each other to form and understand the image that a person sees, and through the reference site, we will talk in this article about the parts of the eye and the function of each, The great scientist Ibn Al-Haytham, and his most important scientific achievements.

eye parts

The structure of the eye was explained to identify each part of the eye and its function. Each part of the eye was called a different name from the other, to be able to understand the function and role of each of them. These parts are:

  • retina.
  • cornea;
  • vitreous fluid.
  • aqueous liquid.

Who was the first to explain the structure of the eye?

The Muslim scholar Ibn al-Haytham was the first to dissect the eye, as he dissected it completely and recognized its parts accurately, as well as defined the function of each part in it, which benefited medicine a lot because he studied the eye, and there are other contributions in various fields and sciences to Ibn al-Haytham, such as Astronomy, mathematics, engineering, and physics, where he proved many difficult theories.

Who is Ibn al-Haytham?

The great scholar Abu Ali Al-Hassan Bin Al-Hassan Bin Al-Haytham was born in Basra in the year nine hundred and sixty-five, AH, that is, in the golden age of Islam. Optics is a great mastery, and Ibn Al-Haytham is the first scientist to prove the source of light, which is the body reflected on the eye, which causes vision, and he has many different achievements.

Ibn al-Haytham's most important achievements

Ibn Al-Haytham made many different and important achievements in various sciences and fields, the most important of which are the following:

  1. He is the first to prove that psychological changes affect the process of vision.
  2. He is considered the first scientist to explain the structure of the eye, and gave each part its names, such as the cornea and retina.
  3. He is credited with discovering ophthalmology, visual perception, mathematics, and physics.
  4. The first to use the scientific method to conduct many experiments.
  5. Record many scientific discoveries and books.
  6. A book explaining in detail Euclid's origins in geometry and number.
  7. He wrote about Euclid's doubts.
  8. He was able to resolve doubts about Euclid's theory.
  9. He authored the analysis of many engineering problems.
  10. He did a lot of research on magnifying lenses.
  11. He is the first to develop a theory explaining the movements of the planets.
  12. Create a landscape book.

Explanation of the structure of the eye and its functions


They are the dark circular islands located in the middle of the colored lens of the eye, and the pupil is characterized by the ability to expand and contract when responding to light, because it shrinks to protect the retina, as its diameter reaches one millimeter in bright light, while the pupil expands to ten millimeters in diameter in the dark. To get as much light as possible.


It is the colored lens in the eye, surrounding the pupil of the eye, and bearing different colors, mostly brown, and it is the muscle that controls the size of the pupil and the amount of light that reaches the retina.

the lens

The lens is the transparent part that helps to focus light precisely on the retina by changing its shape, it works to focus on objects and determine distances to allow the transmission of a real image of objects.

ciliary muscle

It is a muscular ring connected to the lens, and its shape changes through contraction or relaxation, which is known as ocular adaptation.


It is similar to the dome, as it is a transparent layer that covers the pupil, iris, and anterior chamber of the eye, and is filled with nerve endings, but contains no blood vessels, and is largely responsible for most of the focusing power in the eye.

ocular fluid

There are two types of fluid present in the eye, to provide support in the structure and nutrition of the eye, namely:

  • A thick, jelly-like fluid at the back of the eye that makes up the majority of the eye's mass is called the vitreous.
  • The fluid in the front part of the eye is called aqueous.


It is that layer that is located in the deepest point of the eye and contains 120 million photoreceptor cells, and it can detect light and convert it into electrical signals.

optic nerve

It is a dense bundle of nerve fibers that transmit information about light from the retina of the eye to the visual cortex area in the brain, as it is responsible for processing visual information and creating images, and the area of ​​the retina through which these fibers exit is called the blind spot, because it does not contain any of the bacilli and cones.


It is a fibrous tissue that covers the outside of the eyeball except for the cornea, and its importance lies in working to provide the necessary support for the eye to maintain its shape, it is called the white of the eye.


It is a thin, transparent membrane that covers most of the whites of the eyes and the inner part of the eyelids. It also contains tiny blood vessels, to help lubricate the eye and protect it from germs.


It consists of a layer of connective tissue connecting the retina and the sclera, and its thickness is 0.5 millimeters, and the choroid contains light-absorbing pigment cells, to reduce reflections in the retina.

lacrimal glands

They are small glands located inside the upper eyelid, as they contribute to maintaining the cleanliness and moisture of the surface of the eye and protecting it from harm, through the production of natural tears, which are distributed on the surface of the eyeball when closing the eye and eyelashes.

Explanation of the structure of the eye by Ibn al-Haytham

Ibn al-Haytham explained how to see and structure the eye accurately, as follows:

  • Objects emit rays that penetrate the eye, thus drawing an image of the object on the part of the retina.
  • The retina transmits this image formed by the optic nerve to the brain.
  • The brain creates an initial image of this object, which leads to the vision in the eye.