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With the benefits of satellites, man sailed in science and philosophy to understand the height of existence, the course of the universe, and the nature of the movement, so he reached the concept of gravity, which explained the movement of all things in the earth and space, and in research in the group of telecommunications, satellites were launched, to secure communications steadily to the earth And through the reference site, we will learn in detail about the satellites.




satellite concept

Satellites are defined as small man-made objects that are sent into outer space to orbit a planet, star or other space object, to perform several tasks, from taking pictures of distant galaxies and holes, to help scientists understand the cosmic system better. , and taking aerial photographs of the Earth, which helps weather experts to better predict the weather, and is mainly used for communications around the world. It is worth noting that satellites were found at the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century when the Soviet Union sent the first satellite into space in 1957 AD. It was called Sputnik 1, and this event constituted a major shock to the world.


Satellite benefits

Satellites are of great importance in the field of communications and technology, as the satellite can bypass the layers of the atmosphere and high clouds, and navigate in endless areas of outer space, and this made it have several benefits, including:

  • Satellites help in making long-distance phone calls with clarity and ease.
  • Weather experts help predict the weather better.
  • It is used to spy on other countries.
  • It helps transmit television and radio signals over long distances.
  • It is used in telecommunications with the first purpose.
  • Contribute to the discovery of space, planets, and galaxies.
  • Contribute to the determination of military sites and locations.
  • Satellites assist scientists in conducting various space research, such as observing the sun, the solar storm, discovering new planets, and other cosmic matters.


types of satellites

There are many types of satellites used in the world according to their function, as follows:


Communications satellites

Communication satellites are linked to telephone and television signals. The signals are sent from the Earth, received by electronic equipment on the satellite, and then transmitted to another point on the planet. These satellites are used in both military, television, and radio applications.


weather moons

Weather satellites are associated with providing information and forecasts regarding weather and weather conditions, as they provide forecasts about weather conditions, the nature of weather, and temperature in the few hours and in the long term as well.


navigation satellites

Navigation satellites are mainly associated with nuclear submarines, helping to modernize the inertial navigation system, as well as aiding in air navigation.


Search and rescue satellites

Search and rescue satellites are related to identifying the basic characteristics of outer space, which are usually difficult to monitor and identify from planet Earth, such as characteristics of celestial bodies, magnetic fields, and others.


applied satellites

Applied satellites are related to testing various ways to improve satellite industry technology and properties, such as power supply, and improve its control mechanism.


satellite components

Satellites differ in function, shape, and size, but they share some basic components, including:

  1. Wings of solar cells provide the satellite with the energy necessary to operate it.
  2. Light-sensitive detectors, determine the position of the satellite about the Earth and the sun.
  3. Various solar panels generate electricity.
  4. A communications system for receiving and transmitting satellite signals from Earth.
  5. A computer system to control how the satellite works.
  6. A thermostat control system, to control different temperatures.
  7. A guidance system that directs the satellite to its correct trajectory.
  8. The propulsion system is a massive rocket engine that helps put the satellite on its right track.
  9. A metal outer container is called a BUS.
  10. Tablet computer to monitor how different systems work.
  11. A digital camera that helps transmit the image to the Earth's surface with great clarity and high accuracy.
  12. A radio and antenna system to keep communication between the Earth and the Moon available.


satellite orbits

Satellite orbits are defined as the paths that the satellite takes during its movement over the Earth, and the satellite has different orbits, including:


Low Earth Orbits

They are the orbits of the satellites that are only a few kilometers away from the surface of the Earth, and these satellites move in circular paths very quickly, to resist the movement of Earth’s gravity on them, and it should be noted that the satellite cannot fall to the ground at all, because the speed of its movement is equivalent to the speed of rotation land or greater.


Middle Earth Orbits

They are the orbits of the satellites that are hundreds of kilometers from the surface of the Earth, and these satellites move in small circular paths, at a very high speed, to resist the movement of gravity on them.


High Earth Orbits

They are the orbits of satellites that are more than 36,000 km away from the surface of the Earth, and these satellites move synchronously with the Earth's rotation, so it takes a whole day to revolve around the Earth and return to its path.


Areas of use of satellites

Satellites have many uses, which are clearly evident in daily life, and their most prominent uses are:

  1. They are used in phones: satellites provide various telephone communications in all remote areas, areas where a disaster has occurred, in aviation, and so on.
  2. It is used in television: satellites send signals to ground stations, which in turn send them to smaller stations, to broadcast the image in high definition.
  3. It is used in the weather: it enables weather experts to collect different information and forecasts about the weather and helps predict the occurrence of disasters.
  4. Used to finance business: satellites provide different and remote communications between companies, to manage different businesses.
  5. It is used to monitor the climate and the environment: the satellites help in knowing the general climate and monitoring the varying temperatures.
  6. Used for navigation: satellites are used to locate different locations, and to operate the location service in cars.


Reasons why satellites do not fall to the ground

There are many reasons why satellites do not fall on the surface of the Earth, including:

  1. Rotation speed: The satellite’s rotation speed is very large, equivalent to and sometimes exceeding the speed of the Earth’s rotation, as the satellite’s rotation speed reaches 8 kilometers per second.
  2. Rotation in approved ranges: There are many space orbits around the Earth, and the orbits of the satellites revolve in the low Earth range, and the orbits vary between low orbits in which they orbit within ranges very close to the Earth’s surface, medium orbits only hundreds of kilometers away, and high orbits in which they orbit The satellite is within ranges very far from planet Earth.
  3. Long orbits: satellites are sent to orbits very far from the atmosphere, to prevent them from falling.


Here we have come to the end of our article on the benefits of satellites, where we shed light on the types of satellites, their components, benefits, orbits, and uses, in addition to explaining why they did not fall to Earth.

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